Metadata provides a record of almost anything a user does online , from browsing history — such as map searches and websites visited — to account details, email activity, and even some account passwords. This can be used to build a detailed picture of an individual's life. The Obama administration has repeatedly stated that the NSA keeps only the content of messages and communications of people it is intentionally targeting — but internal documents reveal the agency retains vast amounts of metadata.
An introductory guide to digital network intelligence for NSA field agents, included in documents disclosed by former contractor Edward Snowden, describes the agency's metadata repository, codenamed Marina. Any computer metadata picked up by NSA collection systems is routed to the Marina database, the guide explains. Phone metadata is sent to a separate system. The guide goes on to explain Marina's unique capability: On Saturday, the New York Times reported that the NSA was using its metadata troves to build profiles of US citizens' social connections, associations and in some cases location, augmenting the material the agency collects with additional information bought in from the commercial sector, which is is not subject to the same legal restrictions as other data.
The ability to look back on a full year's history for any individual whose data was collected — either deliberately or incidentally — offers the NSA the potential to find information on people who have later become targets.
But it relies on storing the personal data of large numbers of internet users who are not, and never will be, of interest to the US intelligence community. Marina aggregates NSA metadata from an array of sources, some targeted, others on a large scale. Programs such as Prism — which operates through legally compelled "partnerships" with major internet companies — allow the NSA to obtain content and metadata on thousands of targets without individual warrants. The NSA also collects enormous quantities of metadata from the fibre-optic cables that make up the backbone of the internet.
The agency has placed taps on undersea cables, and is given access to internet data through partnerships with American telecoms companies. By confirming that all metadata "seen" by NSA collection systems is stored, the Marina document suggests such collections are not merely used to filter target information, but also to store data at scale.
A sign of how much information could be contained within the repository comes from a document voluntarily disclosed by the NSA in August , in the wake of the first tranche of revelations from the Snowden documents. The seven-page document , titled "The National Security Agency: Missions, Authorities, Oversight and Partnerships", says the agency "touches" 1.
The document cites figures from a major tech provider that the internet carries 1, petabytes of information per day. Wednesday marks the annual National HIV Testing Day, and local groups are using Tuesday to gear up for a day of prevention and awareness. In a courtroom usually set aside for the violence adults unleash on each other, the names of two dead children hung like ghosts.
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LOCAL HOOK UP SITES PRIVATE GIRLS ESCORTS
Newspapers and magazines that take personal advertisements often provide a reply forwarding service; in this case, the text of the advert will include a unique box number and anyone wishing to reply to the advert sends or delivers their reply to the publisher's address in an envelope bearing that number. The publisher forwards replies in bulk to the advertiser at a given interval, for example each week.
Another method of replying to Lonely Hearts adverts is via telephone; this took off with the introduction of premium-rate telephone numbers, providing an additional way for the publisher to generate money. The usual business model is for the advertiser to be enticed to place an advert free of charge using an number or equivalent ; those replying and also the advertiser, when they want to check for any replies must use a premium-rate line.
Due to newspaper prices being based on characters or lines of text, a jargon of abbreviations, acronyms and code words arose in personals and have often carried over to the internet. The following are examples of single-letter abbreviations used in three-letter acronyms TLAs. The middle letter generally represents the ethnicity or nationality of the person posting the ad. Can be replaced by 4, standing for the word for "seeking", "desires", etc. The third letter commonly describes the gender of the person or couple, if that is what is seeking or sought.
As well as three-letter abbreviations of the format described above, a number of other acronyms and abbreviated words have been popular in personal adverts at different times and in different places.
This list is far from complete:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Personal disambiguation and The Personals disambiguation. For the video game, see Worms 4: This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.
Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. By confirming that all metadata "seen" by NSA collection systems is stored, the Marina document suggests such collections are not merely used to filter target information, but also to store data at scale.
A sign of how much information could be contained within the repository comes from a document voluntarily disclosed by the NSA in August , in the wake of the first tranche of revelations from the Snowden documents. The seven-page document , titled "The National Security Agency: Missions, Authorities, Oversight and Partnerships", says the agency "touches" 1. The document cites figures from a major tech provider that the internet carries 1, petabytes of information per day.
However, critics were skeptical of the reassurances, because large quantities of internet data is represented by music and video sharing, or large file transfers — content which is easy to identify and dismiss without entering it into systems. Therefore, the NSA could be picking up a much larger percentage of internet traffic that contains communications and browsing activity. Journalism professor and internet commentator Jeff Jarvis noted: That's one helluva lot of 'touching'.
This provision allows for the collection of data without individual warrants of communications, where at least one end of the conversation, or data exchange, involves a non-American located outside the US at the time of collection. The NSA is required to "minimize" the data of US persons, but is permitted to keep US communications where it is not technically possible to remove them, and also to keep and use any "inadvertently" obtained US communications if they contain intelligence material, evidence of a crime, or if they are encrypted.
The Guardian has also revealed the existence of a so-called "backdoor search loophole", a rule change that allows NSA analysts to search for the names of US citizens, under certain circumstances, in mass-data repositories collected under section According to the New York Times, NSA analysts were told that metadata could be used "without regard to the nationality or location of the communicants", and that Americans' social contacts could be traced by the agency, providing there was some foreign intelligence justification for doing so.
The Guardian approached the NSA with four specific questions about the use of metadata, including a request for the rationale behind storing days' worth of untargeted data, and an estimate of the quantity of US citizens' metadata stored in its repositories. But the NSA did not address any of these questions in its response, providing instead a statement focusing on its foreign intelligence activities. Moreover, all queries of lawfully collected data must be conducted for a foreign intelligence purpose.
It's just not the case. Topics The NSA files. Order by newest oldest recommendations.